Artificial intelligence is a machine tuned to cater our requirements. A classic AI can perform specific tasks as instructed but it is not capable of learning on its own and program. Machine learning is the processing of real world data using algorithms, analyzing the results and predicting the output data using multiple iterations.
AI can be used to further refine or generate new algorithms to get better results, and machine learning programs can align themselves to these algorithms to get much finer granularity in results. Deep Learning, however, uses ML and AI together to break down tasks, analyze each subtask and uses this information to solve new set of problems.
One example of deep learning is the artificial neural network (ANN) which is based on an idea of how our human brain works. ANN finds common patterns from given data and predicts the best result.